How To Cite Sources In A Dissertation On Physical Education: Basic Principles To Follow


While doing the research for your dissertation, you have already found a lot of sources from which you have drawn the conclusion to validate your paper. Properly citing all of your sources is important. Primarily it shows that you have a good grasp of the subject matter by using the work of those who have come before you, work that you are adding to yourself. The most common reason that it is done is to show that you are using their work to show how it applies to yours and that you are not trying to present it as an original idea. While the process of citing it is fairly standardized for all papers here are some of the basic principles that you need to keep in mind.

  • Basic In-Text Citation – The traditional method of citing in the text can be utilized in several ways. It can be used simply using the author’s last name and the date of the publication, or the surname and date along with a specific page number or numbers. Using your citation this way will, of course, be in parenthesis.

  • Alternates of the Author Date in a sentence – It is also possible to use it in the sentence using the author’s surname followed by a parenthetical year and using the date and surname as part of the sentence itself.

  • A specific Section of the Source Material – When you need to reference a specific item in your source material such as an illustration or chart, you need also to include a page number and a figure number as well. This is to clarify exactly which item you are using.

  • Paraphrasing – An excellent tool to use in your work, caution must be used though as to ensure that you are not accidentally taking credit for the other author’s work. While allowing you to use your style and words, paraphrasing is more than simply changing a word or two. Take care that the original intent of the work isn’t twisted or tweaked to have a new meaning. Paraphrasing needs to be cited as well.

  • Quotes – When using this powerful tool in your paper, try to keep the quote as brief as possible while still being able to convey the desired message. For short quotes of a sentence or two, it is standard to place quotation marks around the quote with the citation immediately following the quote itself. For longer quotes of forty words or longer it is typical to indent the entire block of quoted text five spaces. Cite the author and date in the text before the quote, and a parenthetical page number at the end of the quoted text.

There are the basics, make certain to check with your instructor or the schools policy for any other specifics that they would like to see.